Lesson 10
panomoi seltadni
Lojban Numbers
lojbo namcu
Lojban numbers are significantly different from English numbers.
These differences are summarized as:
- Lojban numbers are expressed as a string of numerals that is read
off in order;
- while Lojban numbers do not change form depending on where they are
used, cmavo must often be used with numbers to make the numbers fit
grammatically into bridi sentences unambiguously;
- there are many non-numerical quantifiers in Lojban, cmavo that are
not 'numbers' per se in English, but which can act either like
numerals or numbers in Lojban.
Lojban allows representation of numbers with numerals just as in
English: "345" still represents the same number as "three-hundred and
forty-five", or in Lojban "civomu". No position is taken on the
occasionally controversial questions of whether to put slashes through
zeroes to keep them separate from the letter 'O' or vice versa, or
whether to use the European technique of crossing the handwritten
numeral '7' so it doesn't get confused with '1'. Use whatever of
these conventions you are comfortable with. You will just use a
different 'word' to express the string of numerals when you speak
Lojban.
First, let us present the ten basic Lojban numerals:
pa 1 xa 6
re 2 ze 7
ci 3 bi 8
vo 4 so 9
mu 5
no 0
Some things to note that will help you memorize them:
- each of the 10 basic numerals is a CV-form cmavo;
- each numeral starts with a different letter of the alphabet;
- where the final vowel is the same, there is a sharp contrast between
the way you say the consonants, so that each numeral sounds clearly
different from the others;
- with the exception of 0, which has an obvious cognate in English,
the vowel in the successive numerals occurs alphabetically in order:
a, e, i, o, u, and then repeating.
Lojban numbers are read off as strings of numerals, each representing
a digit of the number as it is written. You can thus practice the
numerals by reading the two numbers: "12345" and "67890":
12345 parecivomu /pah,reh,shee,voh,moo/
67890 xazebisono /khah,zeh,bee,soh,noh/
Practice saying these two numbers with your instructor or the tape.
Because each of the numerals is a separate word, a cmavo, you can use
any desired stress you like on each digit. You can even pause between
digits, reading slowly. The result is still one number.
10.1
On boi
me zo boi
Since a pause does not break-up or terminate a number, some other
verbal signal is needed. When you just said those two numbers, we
didn't specify such a terminator, so what you really said was
'1234567890'. Given the importance of numbers in our modern times,
this is an error you don't want to make.
So how do you separate numbers? One way is to terminate them with the
cmavo "boi". "boi" is always permitted at the end of a string of
digits and means specifically that it is the end of that string, which
may then be treated as a single number. Thus, we should have told you
to say:
parecivomuboi
xazebisono[boi]
The final "boi" is optional if you are not following with another number.
In fact, "boi" is optional when followed with almost anything other
than a numeral. Like "vau", "boi" is said to be 'elidable' in these
cases. "boi" is permitted, and may help make your speech clearer in
some cases, but it is not mandatory except where another number
follows (or something that might be considered part of the first
number). You can thus express "the three doors" as either "le ciboi
vorme ku" or "le ci vorme ku".
10.2
Stress in Number Strings
namcu valsi terbasna
We said that stress is entirely free in numeral strings. This is
actually true in any strings of cmavo. You can stress any syllable
you wish. You may choose to use da'amoi terbasna as for brivla; this
will give an extremely regular rhythm to your speech. Other
Lojbanists like first-syllable terbasna (stress) to more clearly
separate cmavo from brivla in their speech. Or you can be irregular -
no pattern is required.
If you choose final-syllable terbasna on a string of cmavo before a
brivla, you must beware and make one other adjustment: you must pause
before the brivla. A stressed syllable before a brivla can be
absorbed into that brivla, affecting the stress patterns and causing
words to divide up incorrectly. The pause, even if as short as a
glottal stop, ensures that the stressed cmavo remains a separate word,
and the morphology rules cause everything to break up correctly.
Final-syllable terbasna of the last example would thus be pronounced
as: /leh,SHEE.VOR,meh/ or /leh,shee,BOI.VOR,meh/.
10.3
Number Description
namcu selgadri
While "boi" does mark a number, the fact that it is elidable makes it
unsuitable for many uses where you want to indicate that a string of
numerals is indeed a number. One of these uses is when you want to
express a number as a sumti. In this case, you need the sumti
description cmavo "li" to mark the number as a sumti. "li" translates
as "the number '...' ". We thus get the sentence:
li soxa [boi] cu namcu
The number '96' is-a-number.
which is trite but grammatical.
(For the rest of this lesson, we will omit the normally elidable
marker "boi" unless it is particularly relevant to the discussion or
is grammatically required.)
10.4
Counting
nu kantu
When we count, we don't want to read off a long string of numerals -
that would be expressing one number, not several consecutive ones. It
is possibly acceptable to read them off separated by "boi" - you will
indeed have read off a string of numbers. This is not defined as a
grammatical expression, however.
Instead, when expressing a list of numbers (whether for counting or
for other purposes), it is preferable to mark each number as a sumti
with "li", and then to read off the 'counting' as a string of sumti.
This is grammatical and will be particularly useful when we learn to
express such a list of numbers as a mathematical 'set'.
Therefore, you can count as follows:
li pa li re li ci li vo li mu li xa li ze li bi li so
li pano li papa li pare li paci ...
or with "boi":
li paboi li reboi li ciboi li voboi li muboi li xaboi li zeboi
li biboi li soboi li panoboi li papaboi li pareboi li paciboi ...
You can also count with each number into a separate 'sentence' using
".i" instead of marking each number as a sumti; in this case the
counting is more visible:
pa .i re .i ci .i vo .i mu .i xa .i ze .i bi .i so
.i pano .i papa .i pare .i paci ...
The mandatory pauses, of course, tend to break up the rhythm.
Using ".i", you also have the option of putting "li" and/or "boi" in
each separate 'sentence' as well.
10.5
Numbers As Names
namcu cmene
You can also express numbers as the basis for names, just as we can
talk about "the One" in English. In English, number names usually
express a respectful or even religious form of address (although, in
Casey at the Bat, there is the "Mudville Nine"). There is, however,
no culturally- based interpretation required for a Lojban number-based
name. For example, a Lojban phrasing of "The Three Musketeers" would
probably be expressed as "the Three, who are the Musketeers", or even
"the Three, who wield swords together".
Number names, like other names, must end in a consonant. Like many
other Lojban words, we can choose which consonant by using the rafsi
assigned to each numeral.
la pav. 1, the One la xav. 6, the Six
la rel. 2, the Two la zel. 7, the Seven
la cib. 3, the Three la biv. 8, the Eight
la von. 4, the Four la son. 9, the Nine
la mum. 5, the Five la non. 0, the Zero,
the None
For numbers of more then one digit, we usually only put the rafsi
consonant in for the last digit, although this is a matter of personal
choice (as are all names):
la zexav. 76, the Seventy-Six
la zelxav. 76, the Seventy-Six
Note that a schwa must be inserted if building number names from rafsi
results in two impermissible medial consonants being together, as
listed in Section III of the morphology Synopsis:
la cison. 39, the Thirty-Nine
la cibyson. 39, the Thirty-Nine
The irregular extra syllable is one obvious reason why we usually
prefer to add only the single rafsi consonant at the end.
Number names can be useful in reading strings of numbers in a 'noisy
environment', such as when pilots talk on radio. Just as English
speakers use 'Niner' for '9' in such environments, the "la", the extra
consonant and the pause after the name, all serve to make it a bit
easier to make out the digits:
la zel. non. cib. .i la cib. biv. mum. .i la non. rel. zel. cib.
is the way we might express the telephone number of la
lojbangirz. (703-385-0273), with the extra ".i"s thrown in at the
standard breaks to aid a listener. If you try to say this, properly
including the pauses, you will notice that each digit is quite
distinct.
When the number cmavo are combined with the words for "month", "day",
"hour", and "year", the result can be modified into names which are
very useful. The Lojban words for the days of the week, for example,
are names which literally mean "One-Day", "Two-Day", etc. through
"Seven- Day":
la padjed. la redjed. la cidjed.
la vodjed. la mudjed. la xadjed. la zedjed.
Similarly the months of the year start with "la pamast."
(/lah,PAH,mahst./), and the hours of the day start with "la pacac."
(/lah,PAH,shahsh./). In the latter case, when we want to distinguish
'A.M.' from 'P.M.', we can append the rafsi for "early" and "late" as
a 'surname': "la pacac. lir." vs. "la pacac. lec.". (We could have
combined them into a single name, but this would change the da'amoi
terbasna, and the short form of the name wouldn't sound like the long
form.) See the tables at the end of this lesson for listings of names
for commonly used calendar and time numbers based on this approach.
For names of years, we have to use multiple digits in the name; the
year this book is first published being: "la pasobisonan."
(/lah,pah,so,bee,SO,nahn./ = "The Nineteen-Eighty-Nine Year"). With
longer strings of numbers like this, remember that you cannot pause in
the middle or the name breaks up into two words. (You could add in a
consonant at the break so that each part ends in a consonant, but this
would be difficult to remember, when the reason you are pausing is
probably for a breath. Thus, you probably would not express the la
lojbangirz. telephone number as: la zenocicibimunorezecib. Even with
no markers for the hyphens (which we'll get to in a moment) to
lengthen the name, you are unlikely to say it both clearly and without
a pause.
Names do not solve all problems of expressing numbers. They are, like
many other words, ambiguous in meaning. Thus, "la padjed." could
refer to the first day of the month or the first day of the year (for
those such as banks who use a date system which counts from the
beginning of one year to the end without resetting to 1 at the start
of each new month) instead of to the first day of the week. These
problems could be resolved by using different rafsi forms for "djedi",
which represents the concept of "day", or by adding rafsi for "month"
or "year" into the name:
la pama'idjed. la pana'adjed.
The latter is also a good word for the name "New Years' Day".
(There is also the problem of whether to consider Sunday or Monday the
first day of the week. This is probably an inherently cultural
question, since there are cultures that use 'weeks' other than 7 days
long, or which start the week on different days. Some convention must
be chosen, and this text uses the calendar and Judeo-Christian
convention that labels Saturday as the 7th day (Sabbath). Sunday is
the more common Christian 'Sabbath' due to a papal decree setting the
'Sabbath' as the first day of the week, which is Sunday.)
There are other ways to express things like the year, month, day,
hour, or other numbered unit, which do not require the use of names.
Some of these, which will be presented in various lessons to follow,
might be more appropriate than names for solving such problems in
number expression.
10.6
Some Extra Digits
terjmina namcu valsi
In discussing names for months and hours, we did not discuss one
critical point: there are twelve months, and twelve (or twenty-four,
depending on how you choose to tell time) named hours.
The decimal base system used for ordinary counting doesn't work too
well for dates. This should be obvious to anyone who has tried to
subtract dates in 'date arithmetic'. Months of the year are best
expressed using a modified base-12 numbering (with digits for '1'
through '12'). For those unfamiliar with other base counting systems,
this means that a special single digit is used for each of the
concepts of '10', '11', and '12', rather than writing them as two
digits based on 'tens' and 'ones'. Computer programmers, who deal
often with base-16 (hexadecimal) numbers, came up with the idea of
using the letters 'A' thru 'F' for these extra digits. This can cause
confusion, since letters often stand for many other things as well.
Lojban doesn't deal with the question of what symbol to use for these
extra digits. It does, however, assign a unique cmavo to each of the
six extra digits needed to express numbers in base- 16. Twelve hour
clocks need to use three of these 'digits' to refer to the three
hour-names after 9:00. A line had to be drawn as to how many numeral
words could be assigned to cmavo, so a 24- hour clock must use a
different method, as described below.
You don't use these digits when expressing regular base-10 numbers;
they are used only when dealing with larger bases. The number 'ten'
in normal decimal expression is thus "li pano".
The extra digits that have been assigned are:
dau 10 or A cmavo for the digit '10' in a number base greater than 10
fei 11 or B cmavo for the digit '11' in a number base greater than 11
gai 12 or C cmavo for the digit '12' in a number base greater than 12
jau 13 or D cmavo for the digit '13' in a number base greater than 13
rei 14 or E cmavo for the digit '14' in a number base greater than 14
vai 15 or F cmavo for the digit '15' in a number base greater than 15
Note the following to help you learn these:
- all are CVV-form cmavo, unlike the CV-form cmavo used for the other
digits;
- the initial consonants are in alphabetical order;
- the vowels are all VV diphthongs, and follow the order pattern 'au',
'ei', 'ai', repeated twice;
- the first four of these consonants are not used for other numeral
cmavo. (It proved to be impossible to do this for the other two
numerals while retaining the other patterns of alphabetical order
and repeated diphthong patterns.)
Thus, we express the last three months of the year in Lojban as:
la daumast. la feimast. la gaimast.
The 24-hour clock can't use unique numeral cmavo for each hour, so we
must fall back to decimal numbering.
You who learn Lojban will be the ones to make decisions on which of
the many possible ways to express numerical concepts you will use.
For example, in some statements, the use of hour names will be
sufficient to express a time: "I'll be there at 9." In other
expressions, you will prefer reduced ambiguity, greater specificity,
and the ability to pause between numeral cmavo; these are possible
using "li" and other methods.
There is no 'right' or 'wrong' in Lojban expression, as long as others
understand you. It is not our place to tell you which mode of
expression to choose for your own situations and needs. We do
encourage you to try other ways besides the 'natural English' methods,
in hopes that the Lojban community will thus preserve the cultural
neutrality of the language.
10.7
On pi and pi'e
me zo pi .e zo pi'e
Not all numbers are integers. There are fractions, positive and
negative numbers, real and imaginary numbers. There are also more
advanced numerical concepts: algebraic expressions with variables,
etc. Lojban has a system designed to deal with the whole vast nature
of mathematical expression (referred to by the gismu "mekso", which is
not in this lesson's vocabulary). We will not discuss this entire
sublanguage in this course - some of the concepts are probably not of
interest or use to non-mathematicians. We will stick to the basics of
numbers right now. A few points will be added as we go through the
coming lessons. At the end of the course, we will survey the mekso
sublanguage and indicate how you can explore it further if you are
interested in that aspect of the language.
Most people use decimal points and other separators in everyday use of
numbers, so we will discuss those in this lesson. We have to
generalize, however, to cover usages with which we are less familiar.
The cmavo "pi" is referred to as the 'base point' marker. A 'decimal'
point is used to divide integer portions from fractional portions in
decimal (base 10) notation. We don't want to limit your thinking to
the decimal system by calling "pi" a 'decimal' point.
The 'base point' "pi" is used to separate two portions of numbers when
one is a subunit of the other and both portions are expressed in the
same base. You can thus use "pi" for ordinary decimal numbers, for
most decimal money system units, etc. Thus "3.33" is expressed in
Lojban as "li cipicici".
Not all 'numbers' use the same base in all portions of the value.
Time of day, dates, and non-metric measurement units such as feet and
inches, all express different units in various portions of the
expression. In English, we use various symbols other than 'decimal
points' so that the numbers are not read as decimal fractions of the
large unit. (Sometimes dates and times are written point separators
where it is clear what is being expressed, but usually we use slashes
and colons, respectively, to separate units and subunits.)
It is easy to tell if you are dealing with a mixed-base situation.
Examine the following time addition:
3:33
3:33
7:06
which could arise if you want to find out when 3 hours and 33 minutes
after 3:33 PM is. The 'tens' digits of the middle column must be
added different than when you add the same values in the other columns
in order to get the correct result. That one column acts like it is
'base 6' because the minutes number is really a base 60 number being
represented as a decimal number.
Rather than having all kinds of different symbols and cmavo for
separating various types of measurements, Lojban has one cmavo, "pi'e"
to do the separation. You can represent pi'e with a colon, a slash,
or other symbol (other than a comma, a period, or an apostrophe, each
of which have their single defined meaning assigned) in writing
Lojban, but you should always use the same symbol regardless of what
units are being separated, and not with different symbols as in
English. Eventually, your choices will result in a clear consensus
for one symbol, which will be adopted.
The time "3:57" would thus be written as "3/57" in Lojban if 'slash'
were chosen to represent "pi'e"; "3 February 1989" would be written
"3/2/1989". If 'semicolon' were adopted, the results would be "3;57"
and "3;2;1989".
10.8
Telling Time And Date
tcika je detri nunsku
The two brivla for reporting time and date are:
tcika time of day x1 (hours, minutes, seconds) is the
time of state/event x2 on day/date x3 at location x4
detri date x1 is the date (day, {week}, {month}, year)
of state/event x2, at location x3, by calendar x4
while time intervals are reported as:
temci time x1 is the time-duration/interval
from time/date/event x2 to time/date/event x3
Each of these will use times and dates as sumti, expressed in one of two ways:
- if the accuracy is sufficient, you can use number names;
- if you wish to express units and subunits, you will probably use
"li", "pi'e" and the numeral cmavo.
Thus:
la socac. [cu] tcika ti
li sopi'enono [cu] tcika ti
li so pi'enono pi'enono [cu] tcika ti
li sopi'e nono pi'enono pino [cu] tcika ti
"'Nine' is-the-time-of-day of this event"
"'9:00' is-the-time-of-day of this event"
"'9:00:00' is-the-time-of-day of this event"
"'9:00:00.0' is-the-time-of-day of this event"
which all mean
"It's nine o'clock now."
Note that we can go to any arbitrary degree of accuracy using "pi'e"
to separate each separate unit. Also, when we return to decimal (the
presumed default base) for fractions of a second, we can use "pi"
instead of "pi'e". (You could also use "pi'e" for consistency, but
would write the result as "9:00:00:0", which is not the way we write
fractions of a second in English.)
We are not restricted to using "pi'e" with time; in English, we often
express the equivalent of "pi" instead:
"9.5", ("li sopimu") for "half-past-nine"
is the equivalent of
"9:30" or "li so pi'ecino".
In the next section we will see how to express "a quarter before nine".
In general, when expressing units and subunits, the larger unit comes
first, then the subunit, etc. With dates, this is not usually the
case. The year is often ellipsized - we know what it is based on the
context. The most significant information, which is almost never
ellipsized in English, is the day portion of the date. Consistency in
expressing numbers suggests therefore that we should at least go from
smallest to largest unit in dates. The American system of
Month/Day/Year has no particular consistency, and the European system
of Day/Month/Year is therefore recommended.
Thus "3 February 1989" is expressed as "3:2:1989" if we have chosen
'colon' to represent "pi'e", and is read as "li cipi'erepi'epasobiso",
or breaking it into more readable units: "li ci pi'ere pi'e pasobiso".
If you are using a day-in-year calendar system, you need to
communicate that you are skipping the month. Do this by putting two
"pi'e" together: "34::1989" is the same date in this calendar system,
read as "li civo pi'epi'e pasobiso".
If you want to instead refer to days of the week, you can do so by
adding in an extra "pi'e" separator. The default assumption when you
have four unit/subunit values separated by "pi'e" in a date is that
the grouping is:
'day-of-week/week/month/year', or "li xa pi'epa pi'ere pi'e pasobiso"
If you want to include both day-of-week and day in the date, use one
more "pi'e", and insert the day after the 'week':
'day-of-week/week/day/month/year', or "li xa pi'epa pi'eci pi'ere pi'e
pasobiso".
Since usually we leave out the week when we express both day-of-week
and day, you end up with:
"li xa pi'epi'e ci pi'ere pi'e pasobiso" for "Friday the 3rd of
February, 1989".
Summarizing:
3:11 is the 3rd day of the eleventh month (November)
34::1989 is the 34th day of 1989
2:3:1989 is the 2nd day of the 3rd month (March) of 1989
2:3:4:1989 is the 2nd day (Monday) of the 3rd week of the
fourth month (April) of 1989
2:3::1989 is the 2nd day (Monday) of the 3rd week of 1989
2:2:9:5:1989 is the 2nd day (Monday) of the 2nd week, (which is the
9th) of the 5th month (May) of 1989
Other variations that are consistent with these examples are permitted.
10.10
On ki'o
me zo ki'o
One last feature about representing numbers in Lojban also has a
corollary in English. When printing large numbers in English, we
often insert a comma every three digits to make the result easier to
read. Lojban allows for the same convention. We even allow use of a
comma for the 'number comma' (which is why you can't use a comma to
represent "pi'e").
Lojban's number comma is the cmavo "ki'o", which should be easy to
remember from the cognate "kilo-", meaning 1000. Its basic usage is
totally straightforward. The number "123,456.78" is read as "li
pareciki'o vomuxa pizebi", which is much shorter than "one hundred and
twenty-three thousand, four hundred and fifty six point seven eight".
You are not obligated to use a "ki'o" any time that you read such a
large number. It is only there to help you read it clearly, and to
help the listener know that no digits have been missed. You could
even, if the convention has been previously agreed upon, use "ki'o" as
a comma every second digit or every fifth digit. Thus, "ki'o" could
be used for the hyphen separators in telephone numbers. It is
recommended in this case that you stick with three digits, based on
the other uses of "ki'o" discussed below, unless you are sure that the
convention you are using is standard.
"ki'o" has a few other uses that are convenient for certain
circumstances, all related to its use as a 3-digit number comma:
- as a final 'digit' in a number, or before "pi" or "pi'e", "ki'o"
signifies three zeroes ("000");
- by itself, it can serve as an indicator that a series of numbers to
follow are to be presumed to have three zeroes ("000") after them -
the numbers are expressed in thousands.
You have possibly seen both usages in business reports and budget
summaries, where there is indication at the top of the chart that all
numbers are expressed in thousands.
Similarly, you can get 6 digits of zeroes, or millions, with ki'oki'o
in either of these two contexts. Additional groups of three digits
can be expressed with additional "ki'o"s, as well.
Some examples:
li reciki'o muvoso "23,549"
li reciki'o "23,000"
ki'o (or '000') at the top of a table
followed by li reci in the table "23,000"
li reciki'o pizepa "23,000.71"
"ki'o" can be used immediately on the right side of a "pi" or "pi'e"
to stand for three zeroes, as well in other places as a number comma.
Thus:
li reci piki'o zepa "23.000,71" or English "23.00071"
li reci pi zepamuki'o vovo "23.715,44" or English "23.71544"
li reciki'o piki'oki'o zepa "23,000.000,000,71 or English
"23,000.00000071"
When you break a three-digit comma convention in a number, as in "li
reciki'o mu pi zeki'o pa", the result is still grammatical and is a
well-formed number, namely "23,005.007,1".
10.11
Activities For Numbers
namcu selzukte
There are three obvious activities that you can use to practice
numbers. The first is to make a clock face on a paper plate, pair
off, and take turns setting the time, asking what time it is (ma cu
tcika), and answering. The second involves counting in various units,
directed by imperative "ko kancu ...".
The second involves asking other students for information that is
expressed as dates. This can include birthdays (with or without
year), major historical events, etc. The latter activity requires use
of some vocabulary not yet presented (such as "jbena", needed for
birthday). Exploring the vocabulary you haven't yet concentrated on
isn't a bad idea. You may see some useful or easy to learn words that
we aren't going to teach for a while.
Exercise 10-1
larnuntoi panopi'epamoi
Express the following numbers in Lojban text:
7
40
15,000
3.65
9.0001
Express the following times in Lojban text, and the last three as symbols:
4 P.M., as a name
thirty-seven minutes after seven
half-past three
ten till eleven
Express the following dates in Lojban text and as symbols:
The ninth of December
Thursday in the third week, the thirteenth of July, two-thousand and one
The seventy-fourth day of nineteen-sixty.
(and two that require you to think about the conventions a bit)
The second week of September, eighteen-sixty-five
Wednesday the fourteenth
Table 10-1
Hours Of The Day
These are discussed in the lesson. Alternative names are given for 12-hour and 24-hour clock, as
well as special names for 'noon' and 'midnight'.
la pacac. 1 A.M., or the hour called the 'first hour'
la recac. 2 A.M., or the hour called the 'second hour'
la cicac. 3 A.M., or the hour called the 'third hour'
la vocac. 4 A.M., or the hour called the 'fourth hour'
la mucac. 5 A.M., or the hour called the 'fifth hour'
la xacac. 6 A.M., or the hour called the 'sixth hour'
la zecac. 7 A.M., or the hour called the 'seventh hour'
la bicac. 8 A.M., or the hour called the 'eighth hour'
la socac. 9 A.M., or the hour called the 'ninth hour'
la panocac. 10 A.M., or the hour called the 'tenth hour'
la papacac. 11 A.M., or the hour called the 'eleventh hour'
la parecac.
la midycac. 12 noon, or the hour called the 'twelfth hour',
or the hour called the
middle hour
la pacicac. 1 P.M., or the hour called the 'thirteenth hour'
la pavocac. 2 P.M., or the hour called the 'fourteenth hour'
la pamucac. 3 P.M., or the hour called the 'fifteenth hour'
la paxacac. 4 P.M., or the hour called the 'sixteenth hour'
la pazecac. 5 P.M., or the hour called the 'seventeenth hour'
la pabicac. 6 P.M., or the hour called the 'eighteenth hour'
la pasocac. 7 P.M., or the hour called the 'nineteenth hour'
la renocac. 8 P.M., or the hour called the 'twentieth hour'
la repacac. 9 P.M., or the hour called the 'twenty-first hour'
la rerecac. 10 P.M., or the hour called the 'twenty-second hour'
la recicac. 11 P.M., or the hour called the 'twenty-third hour'
la revocac.
la nocac. 12 midnight, or the hour called the
'twenty-fourth hour', or the hour called the 'zeroth hour'
Table 10-2
Days Of The Week
These are discussed in the lesson.
la padjed. Sunday or the day called the 'first day' of the week
la redjed. Monday or the day called the 'second day' of the week
la cidjed. Tuesday or the day called the 'third day' of the week
la vodjed. Wednesday or the day called the 'fourth day' of the week
la mudjed. Thursday or the day called the 'fifth day' of the week
la xadjed. Friday or the day called the 'sixth day' of the week
la zedjed. Saturday or the day called the 'seventh day' of the week
Table 10-3
Months Of The Year
la pamast. January, or the month called the 'first month' of the year
la remast. February, or the month called the 'second month' of the year
la cimast. March, or the month called the 'third month' of the year
la vomast. April, or the month called the 'fourth month' of the year
la mumast. May, or the month called the 'fifth month' of the year
la xamast. June, or the month called the 'sixth month' of the year
la zemast. July, or the month called the 'seventh month' of the year
la bimast. August, or the month called the 'eighth month' of the year
la somast. September, or the month called the 'ninth month' of the year
la daumast. October, or the month called the 'tenth month' of the year
la feimast. November, or the month called the 'eleventh month' of the year
la gaimast. December, or the month called the 'twelfth month' of the year
Answers to Exercise 10-1
For variety, we'll use semicolons as the delimiter for "pi'e" in these
answers.
Express the following numbers in Lojban text:
7 ze
40 vono
15,000 pamuki'o
3.65 ci pixamu
9.0001 so pi ki'opa
Express the following times in Lojban text, and the last three as symbols:
4 P.M., as a name la paxacac.
thirty-seven minutes after seven 7;37 li ze pi'ecize
half-past three 3.5 li cipimu
ten till eleven 11;-10 li fei pi'e ni'upano
Express the following dates in Lojban numerical text and as symbols:
The ninth of December 9;12 li so pi'e gai
Thursday in the third week, the thirteenth of July, two-thousand and one
5;3;13;7;2001 li mu pi'eci pi'epaci
pi'eze pi'e renonopa
(or reki'opa)
The seventy-fourth day of nineteen-sixty. 74;;1960
li zevo pi'epi'e pasoxano
The second week of September, eighteen-sixty-five
;2;9;1865 li pi'ere pi'eso pi'e
pabixamu
Wednesday the fourteenth 4;;14;; li vo pi'epi'e pavo
pi'epi'e
(without the extra "pi'e"s, you wouldn't know which convention to use)