Lojban File Server Roadmap
This is a roadmap to the Lojban File Server.
See also the Lojban WWW Page.
The following directories currently exist on the server:
This directory contains the basic Lojban introductory brochure in the following languages:
These versions are not all equally up-to-date, as we have few resources for any language but English, but they
are substantially equivalent. In case of doubt, the English version is the most correct.
(*) The Esperanto version is in TeX format, but can be read as plain text by deleting the first 35 lines or
In addition, the following introductory files are available:
- The Lojban FAQ (faq.htm)
- A registration form (regform.htm),
allowing you to notify us of your interest in Lojban
- Our current order form (ordernet.html),
allowing you to get printed copies of many of the materials on this site, or to order the reference grammar book,
The Complete Lojban Language (cll.html)
- A short version of the English brochure,
suitable for posting on BBSes and in Usenet (brochure.short)
- An shortened HTML version of the English
brochure (lojbroch.html), more easily readable with a browser.
- A comparison between Lojban and Loglan,
another version of the language, with an explanation of the reasons for having two versions (from the Lojban viewpoint)
- A diagrammed grammar summary with examples, giving
the basics of Lojban --- rather technical and dense (lojex.txt)
- A Lojban mini-lesson, teaching the basics of the language, with exercises (minilesson.txt,
- The minilesson and the diagrammed summary have been combined in a somewhat simpler form in Chapter
2 of the Reference Grammar. (Go
to reference grammar files.)
- The Overview of Lojban, an older summary
of key concepts of the language (overview.html)
- Information about The Logical Language Group,
la lojbangirz. (llg.html)
This directory contains draft material for the forthcoming Lojban-English/English-Lojban dictionary (expected
out in late 2000 or 2001).
A draft version of the English-Lojban version
of the gismu (engdict.gis - 2.1 Meg) is available. This can be downloaded as a zipped
file (engdict.zip - 556K). Nora LeChevalier's working lujvo-list with place structures is also available
(noralujv.txt - 790K)
This directory contains temporary and unofficial dictionary information in TeX and PostScript formats. Here
is the README (dict.README)
file. For other files, please browse the directory.
This directory contains the latest compendium of working files being used in creating the Lojban dictionary.
Among the archives are:
- gismu, lujvo,
and misc wordlists with frequencies
derived from that text and others, current to 5 December 1999 (xxxx1999.zip).
Volunteers are sought to aid in preparing these lists for use as dictionary files. Contact Bob LeChevalier, [email protected] to volunteer.
- a file skeleton (dictbook.zip) of the original draft outline of the dictionary, much of which
is obsolete or supplanted by publication in the Reference Grammar,
- a mapping of words from Lojban to TLI Loglan (oldlog.txt)
- various semi-editted KWIC files based on the gismu
(gismkwic.zip) and cmavo
(cmavkwic.zip) lists to be used to generate additional dictionary
This directory contains various Lojban etymology files, some of which are in a format suitable for analysis
by the GLOTTO software written by Jacques Guy <[email protected]>.
The file lojban.voc contains a list
of Lojban gismu in no particular order; the other *.voc files contain the same words in each of the six Lojban
source languages. Note that the source-language words are in Lojbanized spelling rather than conventional spelling,
which makes them hard to recognize. Furthermore, conventional endings have been chopped off, and affricates ("tc",
"dj", "ts", "dz") have generally been reduced to simple spirants ("c",
"j", "s", "z" respectively), to prevent bogus mismatches. Thus, for example, the
Spanish word "hijo" appears as "ix".
The file lojban.icg contains the same
data, but merged into a single file. The order of words in this file is the same as that in the *.voc files, but
the words have been brought together. For each word, the languages are listed in the order Lojban-Chinese-English-Hindi-Spanish-Russian-Arabic.
Each word is preceded by the letter "L" if it is Lojban or contributed (score > 0) to the Lojban gismu,
or else by the first letter of its language name ("C", "E", "H", "S", "R",
or "A") if it made no contribution (score = 0).
All of this data was drawn from the file finprims,
which contains complete information (except for original-language representations, which only exist in hardcopy
form) on the Lojban gismu (primitive roots).
The file etysample.txt contains sample
etymologies for a few gismu, and may be used to get the flavor of Lojban etymologizing.
In addition, the files langstat.94
and langstat.95 are reports on the number
of speakers of various world languages, as of 1994 and 1995. Earlier versions of this data were used to make weighting
decisions in gismu construction.
The file eaton.zip is old Eaton data
from an earlier stage of the Loglan Project. Primarily of historical interest, it was an attempt at covering all
of the words in Helen Eaton's 1930's list of the most frequently used concepts in 4 European languages. A low priority
project is to replace this work with updated Lojban words for each concept. Contact [email protected]
for further information.
This directory contains the current draft of the Lojban textbook. This is a very rough draft and contains
many omissions and typesetting deficiencies. There is no plan to work on it until the reference grammar and dictionary
- Lessons 0 and 1, or Lesson
0 in html
- Lesson 2
- Lesson 3
- Lesson 4
- Lesson 2
- Lesson 6
- Lesson 7
- Lesson 8
- Lesson 9
- Lesson 10
- Lesson 11
- Lesson 12
- Lesson 13
- Lesson 14
- Lesson 15
- Lesson 16
- Lesson 17
- Lesson 18
- Lesson 19
- Lesson 20
- Lesson 21
- Lesson 22
(Note: The filenames are lesson01 through lesson22.)
Microsoft Word for Windows 2.0 file versions:
This directory contains many Lojban-related graphics in Windows .BMP and .ICO formats. Please browse the directory
to see what is available.
This directory contains Lojban material which is primarily of historical interest. Any technical information
here should be considered suspect with respect to the current language. See also the older items in the text
archive and JL issues before JL10 for considerable
One item that is not truly historical is the current
set of Bylaws (bylaws.792.txt) for la lojbangirz.
Minutes of annual meetings of the membership (Microsoft Word format) from 1992 through 1998 are here: 1992,
The original grammar synopsis (Oct 88) (grsyn.doc) and (grsyntoc.doc), the ancestor of both the current reference grammar
and the textbook, may be found here, both in Microsoft Word format..
The original Roget's category assignments to the gismu are here (rogetnew.tx1).
The October 1988 cmavo list (cmav1088.zip)
that went with the grammar synopsis, and the Feb 1990 cmavo list (cmav0290.zip) are here.
Various historical versions of the Lojban grammar, showing its early evolution. The earliest complete grammar
on file is grammar.new
(28 Oct 1988). Also available are grammar.b17
(21 Nov 1988), grammar.e25
(28 Feb 1989), grammar.l23
(24 Sep 1989), grammar.506
(6 May 1990), and grammar.28
(1 July 1991) with its corresponding BNF.28.
The latter two are the earliest versions of the grammar as modified by John Cowan.
A list showing the pre-1993 rafsi assignments side-by-side with the final baselined set of rafsi may be found
Some miscellaneous writings by John Hodges (hodges.zip) and by David Twery (twery.zip) may be found here. John Hodges wrote short essays mainly
on how we might promote Lojban to the world. David Twery wrote text and invented words.
Finally, the announcement of the 10th anniversary of the Lojban language development (lojban10.html) may be found here.
This directory contains issues of ju'i lobypli (JL), the Lojban journal through the last published
issue JL18. In addition le lojbo karni (LK) issues 8 through 11 are included because at that time LK was
the news component of JL. LK18 is also included, since it was published a full year after JL18 and contains some
news not in JL18.
The format is plain ASCII, but many lines are longer than 80 characters. Please browse the directory to see
what is available.
This directory contains the archives of Lojban List, a mailing list dedicated to Lojban. To subscribe, send
a blank message to <[email protected]>. Note
that traffic levels vary wildly.
Files are named by year and month. If a given month is missing, it is probably consolidated with a later month
or not yet uploaded. Because of apparent inconsistencies in the automated archives due to missing and damaged messages,
starting in November 1998 the archives contain two separate versions of each month's archive.
onelist.com has a searchable archive covering the period since 5 November 1998 at http://www.onelist.com/archive/lojban
The Lojban machine grammar is available here in several formats.
The Extended BNF and YACC grammars may be found in HTML format, with indexes for each tag, in Chapter
21 of the Lojban Reference grammar. As the baseline grammar document, this is the most authoritative source.
If the BNF and YACC versions do not agree, the YACC takes precedence.
This directory contains the latest Lojban project news
and current links to other pages of interest to Lojbanists. The projects
section of the FAQ is kept updated here with current status. Finally a copy of Evguenie Sklyanin's Lojban Links
pages, locally edited is here. The original and unmodified
version of that site can be linked from here.
This directory contains miscellaneous papers about Lojban.
- A lengthy discussion from Lojban List about the possibility of a 4th tense for Lojban to handle relativistic
issues. (Short version: nothing changed.)
- review of Loglan 1 (TLI Loglan) by Lojbab and Athelstan
- A paper about Nick Nicholas's semantic analyser. Source code available at software/analyser.
- An introductory essay on the art of tanru making and using tanru to make lujvo.
- Nick Nicholas's paper on lujvo-making and lujvo place structures. A shorter
version appears as part of the reference grammar.
- Another paper by Nick on Lojban compositional semantics.
- Playing Scrabble in Lojban: rules, and how to fix up a Scrabble set. Some lines longer than 80 characters.
- A series of bibliographic references for people interested in exploring the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
- An explanation of how to patch up Loglan 1 (1975 edition) to apply to Lojban instead. Probably
obsolete, but of historical interest.
- A brief explanation of Lojban aspects.
This directory contains the current reference grammar. This is the pre-final version, and has some typos.
Anyone interested is urged to read the book and send comments to John Cowan
at <[email protected]>.
Here are the individual chapters:
- Lojban As We Mangle It In Lojbanistan: About
- A Quick Tour of Lojban Grammar, With Diagrams
- The Hills Are Alive With The Sounds Of Lojban
- The Shape Of Words To Come: Lojban Morphology
- "Pretty Little Girls' School":
The Structure Of Lojban selbri
- To Speak Of Many Things: The Lojban sumti
- Brevity Is The Soul Of Language: Pro-sumti
- Relative Clauses, Which Make sumti Even
- To Boston Via The Road Go I, With An Excursion
Into The Land Of Modals
- Imaginary Journeys: The Lojban Space/Time
- Events, Qualities, Quantities, And Other
Vague Words: On Lojban Abstraction
- Dog House And White House: Determining
lujvo Place Structures
- Oooh! Arrgh! Ugh! Yecch! Attitudinal and
- If Wishes Were Horses: The Lojban Connective
- "No" Problems: On Lojban Negation
- "Who Did You Pass On The Road? Nobody":
Lojban And Logic
- As Easy As A-B-C? The Lojban Letteral System
And Its Uses
- lojbau mekso: Mathematical Expressions
- Putting It All Together: Notes on the Structure
of Lojban Texts
- A Catalogue of selma'o
- Formal Grammars
(Note: The filenames are chap1.html through chap21.html; there are accompanying cartoons for
each chapter named chap1.gif through chap21.gif.)
The entire draft is available in a ZIP
This directory contains the following programs:
- The source code (in Prolog) for Nick Nicholas's Lojban Semantic Analyser.
- An implementation of the Lojban word-resolution algorithm, which is described in brkwords.txt. the source for this program is in brkwords.pas
- The Lojban Parser/Glosser. This program takes grammatical Lojban
text and translates it word for word into an English gloss, including identifying case tags for the sumti of all
gismu that are used. The file includes the up to date Lojban parser.
- The Lojban lujvo-making and analysis program. This program allows
you to make lujvo given the source metaphor (English keywords) or to analyze a lujvo into its component metaphor.
There are drill modes that generate random lujvo to test your word making and analysis skills.
- This is an obsolete version of the Lojban random sentence generator,
based on the 2.8 version of the grammar. A new version is being worked on. Most of the sentences that this program
generates will be correct Lojban.
- This is an attempt to make a Lojban compatible version of the Scrabble
(tm) word game. Letter frequencies are based on frequencies in Lojban words.
- The GUNZIP program, used to uncompress .gz files.
- Logflash files
- Internal program documentation, somewhat out of date, for LogFlash. Probably useful to anyone trying to modify
- A description of the flashcard mamagement process used as the basis for LogFlash - essentially an algorithm
statement for the program.
- The Turbo-Pascal source for the current version of LogFlash 1 (LF3 differs only in changing some constant parameters).
- LogFlash, a computer-aided instruction program for teaching Lojban gismu. This is an MS-DOS executable with
- LogFlash 3, a computer-aided instruction program for teaching Lojban cmavo. This is an MS-DOS executable with
- A description of the LogFlash algorithm at the user level. The current version is described. LogFlash 2,mentuioned
in the text, is being brought up to the current language standard, but is not yet available.
The files in this directory are the current distribution of the LLG official Lojban parser, in source form and
Basically, there are two files. parser.zip
contains the MS-DOS executable, whereas parser.shar.gz
contains the source code. To compile the parser from the source code, just say "cc -o parser *.c"; there
is no Makefile. The code is in K&R C, but should compile all right using an ANSI compiler. If you have trouble
unpacking the ZIP file, use PKZipFix to convert it to MS-DOS ZIP format.
Both versions contain the 'yacc' grammar, the current E-BNF grammar, and a list of technical fixes updating
the 2nd baseline grammar. You can process the 'yacc' version with yacc or bison, but do not attempt to use the
resulting y.tab.c file in the parser -- the provided grammar.c has been extensively hacked both before and after
'yacc'ing to make it work in the parser.
This directory contains translations and original texts in Lojban. Most include an English version, either a
colloquial running translation or at least a gloss of the Lojban.
Five files of text and discussion thereof, extracted from 1994 Lojban List traffic, may be found in 1994m1.txt, 1994m2.txt, 1994m3.txt, 1994m4.txt, and
This was the first year when significant amounts of interactive Lojban text were posted by Lojbanists other than
Nick Nicholas, Lojbab, or people taught directly by Lojbab.
- Some fables by Aesop, translated from the Greek. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- A translation of the first page of a higher algebra text. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- A compendium of the results from runnings of the "phone game" a chain letter of translations between
Lojban and English with humorous distortions at each step.
- A zipped compendium of all of the texts in this directory for easy download.
- A few lines from Beowulf: an attempt to preserve the semantic and syntactic devices of the original.
Tr. John Cowan.
- A Greek folk tale. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- Another Greek folk tale. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- The Nicene creed, a major Christian statement of faith, from the Greek. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- Short story by Lucian of Samosata, 2nd-century Greek author. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- Part of a book by Freddy Germanos, modern Greek journalist. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- Song "The Merryman & His Maid", aka "I Have A Song To Sing, O!" from the Gilbert &
Sullivan operetta Yeomen of the Guard. Tr. Lojbab.
- Creation story from the Hebrew Bible. Tr. Mark Shoulson.
- "On A Bitter Occasion", by Kalman Kalocsay, Esperanto poet. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- A Roman legend, composed in Polish by Orzekso, translated into Esperanto by Kabe. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- Translation of an Esperanto translation of a Lithuanian/Polish folk song. The Esperanto version appeared in
the Esperanto Fundamental Chrestomathy in 1905. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- A prosaic version of the Lord's Prayer from the New Testament. From the English, corrected by reference to
the Greek. Tr. Lojbab.
- Martin Luther King's famous "I Have A Dream" speech. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- Several very short Chinese folk tales. Tr. Preston Maxwell, rev. Nick Nicholas.
- A poem by Soviet Esperantist Evgeny Mikhalski. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- "The Mildew of the World", written in Polish by Boleslaw Prus, translated into Esperanto by Kabe.
Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- A self-referential story by David Moser, printed in Douglas Hofstadter's column and book Metamagical
Themas. Every sentence refers to itself, including the title, which is "This is the title of the story,
which is repeated several times in the story itself." Perfect for Lojban. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- The well-known story "North Wind And Sun". This has been translated into hundreds of languages. Tr.
- The first few paragraphs of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death". Tr. Jorge LLambias.
- An interview by Freddy Germanos of Ringo Starr, presumably conducted in English, but published in Greek. Tr.
- A text by Ralph Roughton, origin unknown. Tr. Colin Fine.
- A translation by John Cowan of the children's book "Tikki-Tikki Tembo". Easy text.
- http://www.onelist.com/isregistered.cgi?listname=lojbanText from "Greek Mythology" by modern Greek
humorist and slang devotee Nikos Tsiforos. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- A single paragraph by scientist/writer Lancelot Law Whyte. Contains English original, Lojban translation, word-by-word
gloss, and a word-by- word gloss of a 1977 Loglan version by J.R. Atkins, showing the different styles of tanru
in effect at that time. Tr. Nick Nicholas.
- Lyric from a Suzanne Vega song, "Words". Tr. Lojbab, with commentary based on Nick Nicholas's translation
of the same poem into other artificial languages. Also available in
- A 3-book set of poetry, by Michael Helsem, may be found in cukta1.html, cukta2.html, and cukta3.html. English translations will be found in book1.html, book2.html, and book3.html.
This directory contains many files generated by contributors to the ckafybarja project, an attempt
to get many Lojbanists writing creatively in a common setting. See the directory for a complete list of files,
but there are texts here from Nick Nicholas, Mark Shoulson, Veijo Vilva, David Bowen, Jorge Llambias, Iain Alexander,
Floren Dupont de Dinechin, and Goran Topic (thereby representing 7 different countries and 5 different native languages
among the authors). A series of files with names starting with C1 and C2 are glosser inputs (.txt) and outputs
(.glo) for several of the texts.
- A zip file of all files in this directory for easy downloading.
- Lojban Ckafybarja (coffee bar) documents, edited by Veijo Vilva; mixed Lojban and English text. Also available
in TeX DVI format.
- More original text by Nick Nicholas, set in Lojbanic coffee bar.
This is Lojbab's full text and text discussion archive (which is actually only complete up until around 1993).
See the directory for details.
This directory contains various texts in English. They address the question "Why Lojban?" from many
- Lojban and Esperanto - JL discussions including comments from Donald Harlow and Lojban's 'Answer' to the '16
- Lojban's relevance to linguistics and linguistics research
- Lojban and machine translation by Patrick Juola
- Lojban and other planned languages by Todd Moody
- 1991 Reply by John Cowan to Arnold Zwicky's 1969 "Language" Review of Loglan 1.
- Extracted Network Discussions of Lojban and Sapir-Whorf - mostly 8-9/90
- General discussion on 'Why Lojban?' extracted from ju'i lobypli, Includes JCB on Sapir Whorf. Many contributors.
Various public-domain Lojban wordlists, including:
See also the draft-dictionary/working
directory for additional current wordlists.